Climate of India can be divided mainly into four seasons. The four seasons are winter, summer, advancing monsoon and retreating monsoon. India experiences a change in seasons and such change have a great impact on the geography of India. Indian climate change can be felt with the change in seasons. Himalayas experience Alpine zone at high altitude of Himalayas. The sub tropical zone is experienced in most of the northern part of India. Rainfall is common in summer season whereas winters are cold and dry. Tropical zone of Indian climate has characteristics where regions experience either wet monsoon or dry and cold monsoon.
The winter in India spans the months of December till the beginning of April. The coldest months of the year are January and December. During this period, the average temperature is approximately 50-59 °F. The summer months are the months of April to June. However, the summer refers to the months of April to July in the northwestern parts of the country. In the southern and western parts of the country, the month with the maximum recorded temperature is April. In case of the northern parts of the country, the month with the maximum recorded temperature is May. The monsoon, also known as the rainy season, spans the months of June to September. This season is primarily influenced with the moist southwestern summer torrential rainfall that gradually moves throughout the nation. It starts in the end of May or the beginning of June. The post-monsoon season spans the months of October to December. In the northwest parts of the country, the months of November and October normally have a bright weather.
India is a land of variety of religions and languages. Some festivals are observed throughout the country; others have specific regional associations.
Diwali : Deepawali literally means an array of lamps is the Festival of Lights. Depawali is the occasion of joy and triumph for one and all in the entire Hindu world. It's known as the "Festival of Lights" for all the fireworks, small clay lamps, and candles that are lit during the celebrations. These lights are said to represent the victory of good over evil, and brightness over darkness.
Ganesh Chaturthi : Ganesh Chaturthi, the birthday of Lord Ganesh, is celebrated in August-September. Ganesh is the elephant headed son of Goddess Parvati, consort of Lord Shiva. The start of the festival sees huge, elaborately crafted statues of Ganesha installed in homes and podiums, which have been especially constructed and beautifully decorated.
Holi : Holi is a festival of fun and gaiety for people of all ages. Bonfires are lit and people smear colors on each other. Holi signifies the start of spring and the end of winter. People celebrate the new harvest and return of color in nature. The mythological origin of this festival varies in North and South India. Holi is a two day festival that also celebrates the victory of good over evil, as well as the abundance of the spring harvest season.
Navaratri, Dussehra, and Durga Puja : The first nine days of this festival are known as Navaratri, and are filled with dance in honor of the Mother Goddess. The tenth day, called Dussehra, is devoted to celebrating the defeat of the demon king Ravana by Lord Rama. Dussehra or Navratri is one of the most popular festivals of India. Dussehra is the anniversary of the victory of Goddess Durga over the buffalo-headed demon, Mahishasura, giving the goddess her name Mahishasura-Mardini
Every state of India has its own culture and special foods. Indian cuisine is usually prepared with lots of vegetables, pulses and spices. Vegetarianism is prevalent in many areas. North Indian cuisine includes Kashmiri food. Plentiful of Rice is grown in northern states and is eaten as a staple food and used in a variety of dishes. Saag is famous green leafy vegetable dish which north Indian love to eat. North Indian states like Haryana, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh, people eat a lot of 'Rotis' or 'Chapatis' as wheat is widely grown. Famous types of Rotis are 'Naan', 'Rumali' and the 'Taandoori' which are common in North.
The southern India natives use spices, fish, and coconut in plentiful amount. Seafood is also consumed in large quantity. To bring taste tamarind, red and green chilies are used abundantly which certainly make food too hot. Appams, lamb stew, Fried prawns, dosas, idlis and rice puttu are famous dishes of this region of the country. Bengalis are famous for their love for 'Mach-Bhaat' or fish curry and rice. Bengalis also eat number of sweet dishes such as 'Roshogolla', 'Cham-Cham', 'Sandesh' and 'Kheer'. West Indians uses lot of varieties of lentil recipes in store and a typical meal will consist of 'Dal', 'Roti', 'Achaar' and Yogurt. In the lower part of the western region seafood is majorily eaten.
India has a unique geographical structure. From the top of India to bottom, Indian geography totally changes. India is a mixed land that has mountains, deserts, hills, plateaus and much more. It is a land locked country but still has diversified geography. This is the reason India is considered as a sub continent in itself. It is surrounded by the Arabian Sea in the west and by Bay of Bengal in the east. Separated by the mighty Himalayas from China, Tibet and the rest of Asia, the geography of India is certainly one of the most impressive of all countries.
The geography of India in the North is that of the Himalayan mountain range which contrast completely with the flat Northern plain as it stretches right across the top of India. As the great Northern plain heads south it begins to go into a high plateau known as the Deccan. To the West of the the huge plateau are the beautiful Western Ghats that lead down to the sea and then on the East the Eastern Ghats which run parallel to the sea.
The Geography of India in the West is somewhat different to the rest of India. The west contains the states of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa and part of the large, central state of Madhya Pradesh. The East of is characterized by the Ganges river and, amongst others, the states of Madhya Pradesh, Bihar and Orissa.
The history of India is one of the grand epics of world history.
The Stone Age: The Stone Age began 500,000 to 200,000 years ago and recent finds in Tamil Nadu indicates the presence of the first anatomically humans in the area.
The Bronze Age: The Bronze Age in the Indian subcontinent dates back to around 3300 BCE with the early Indus Valley Civilization.
Vedic Period: The Vedic Period is distinguished by the Indo-Aryan culture which was associated with the texts of Vedas, sacred to Hindus, and that were orally composed in Vedic Sanskrit.
The Mughal Empire: In 1526, Babur, a descendant of Timur and Gengis Kahn from Fergana Valler swept across the Khyber Pass and established the Mughal Empire which covered modern day Afghanistan, Pakistan, India and Bangladesh.
Colonial Era: From the 16th century, European powers such as Portugal, Netherlands, France and the United Kingdom established trading posts in India
Indian Independence Movement and Mahatma Gandhi: In the 20th century Mahatma Gandhi led millions of people in a national campaign of non-violent civil disobedience to contain independence from the British.
Independence and Partition: Religious tension between the Hindus and Muslims had been brewing over the years, especially in provinces like Punjab and West Bengal. The Muslims were a minority and they did not feel secure in the prospect of an exclusively Hindu government and hence made them wary of independence.
The demographics of India explains that we are second most populous country in the world, with over 1.21 billion people (2011 census) which is more than a sixth of the world's population. India owns 17.5% of the world's population, where we are projected to be the world's most populous country by 2025, surpassing China, its population reaching 1.6 billion by 2050. Its population growth rate is 1.41%, ranking 102nd in the world in 2010.Indian population reached the billion mark in 2000.
India has more than 50% of its population below the age of 25 and more than 65% below the age of 35. It is expected that, in 2020, the average age of an Indian will be 29 years, compared to 37 for China and 48 for Japan; and, by 2030, India's dependency ratio should be just over 0.
India has more than two thousand ethnic groups, and every major religion is represented, as are four major families of languages (Indo-European, Dravidian, Austroasiatic and Tibeto-Burman languages) as well as two language isolates (the Nihali language spoken in parts of Maharashtra and the Burushaski language spoken in parts of Jammu and Kashmir).
India is known as the land of spirituality and philosophy, was the birthplace of some religions, which even exist today in the world. We, Indians are known for our traditions, values and religions. Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism are the three ancient religions which were originated in India.
Hinduism is the most dominant religion of India. Approximately 80% of the population are Hindus, and very less population which comprises of Buddhists, Jains and Sikhs. Hinduism is a colorful religion where Hindus preach various Gods and Goddesses and it is rich in its beliefs and ideas.
Buddhism is 2500 years old religion. It takes its name from a special individual known as 'the Buddha'. The religion is practiced all over the world and is popular in western countries like in Europe and USA. Jainism and Sikhism are again famous ancient religions which people in India follow. India also owns followers of many non-India religions such as Islam, Christianity and Zoroastrianism. . The largest non-Indian religion is Islam. 12% of India's population. Christians are more then 2% of India's population. Zoroastrians make less than 0.01% of India's population. There are also a few thousand Jews in India. Judaism and Christianity might have arrived in India before they arrived in Europe.